Gavi D.O.C.G.
 [Grape & Vine]

Geographically Gavi is located in the southern Piedmont, practically on the border with Liguria and so close to the Ligurian Apennines mountains. You can consider more general term as belonging to so-called "foothill" regions that include, as well as Piedmont and Valle d'Aosta, Lombardy, Veneto, Trentino Alto Adige and Friuli Venezia Giulia.
      In these regions we find a climate defined precisely type pedemontano, characterized by rather rigid winters, hot summers and spring and autumn fairly mild, more or less rainy. These are the classical connotations of the "fruity-end", typical of those regions that are above the 44th parallel, where they produce wines, albeit with a few exceptions, not to a high alcohol content, but of complex and strong fragrance.
 


Grappolo di Cortese

Minimum aging required by law: not given
Tasting age: young
Serving temperature: 8-12 ° C
Color: straw yellow more or less pale
Bouquet: Fine, delicate, characteristic
Taste: Dry, pleasant fresh and harmonious taste
Pairing: Appetizers, cheese, fish.

D.O.C. 1974 - D.O.C.G. since 1998
Production area: 11 municipalities of the Alexandrian
Name Size (Hectares): 1035
Average annual production (Tons): 95
Average annual production (hectares): 54000
Grapes: Cortese 100%
Minimum alcohol content: 10.5% Vol.

   

 


With the recognition of D.O.C.G., Gavi has completed a journey that made him famous worldwide. And it's  produced more than 7 million bottles, even in the sparkling type. The first rational plants in style Cortese, native vine already mentioned in the seventeenth century, are due to the family of Cambiaso in the estates of Centuriona Toledana in 1876. The goal was to produce white wine for the Ligurian canteens, well storable due to the good standard of acidity, and the example was soon followed by other large estates of the best Genoese families starting by the Raggio.
The affirmation of Cortese di Gavi slowly leads to the abandonment of the red grapes, with a specialization that, under the push and qualitative promotion of large companies, the Scolca first, came in 1974 to Doc Gavi.

 

 

   

There are about 150 large, medium and small companies of the extraordinary wine committed to satisfy the demand and that adhere to the Gavi Consortium. A market that is still growing thanks to the high quality of the product, obtained by the enthusiasm, passion and dedication of people to the cult of wine dedicate their existence. They are the grandchildren and great grandchildren of the pioneers of the noble art of making wine and precious fruits Cortese, who perform this activity not only as a source of income, but as a mission that goes much further and becomes an artistic essence, bottled for export and make known to the world .

 

Dalla vite alla degustazione

The Sumerians, then the Egyptians and Greeks and then the Etruscans were the first wine producers. The vine is an ancient plant that for millions of years is present in the temperate zones of the planet, but only a few thousand years it has begun to produce wine. Today Italy is the world's first wine country and Europe holds 80% of world production.


Among the various existing species the most important is the vitis vinifera which owns almost all fruit varieties.
The vine can live and bear fruit only where there are four seasons. Already in the Roman Empire there were about 140 types of wine that were circulating in Rome which, because of the extension of the Empire, came from all over. After the fall of the wine and vine suffered a serious regression and resisted well only within the monasteries. Later thanks to Carlo Magno, a great admirer, the wine underwent a new boom. The vine was cultivated without major problems until about 200 years ago, America came pest which almost led to the extinction European lives.
Those worthy of note and are very dangerous: The phylloxera, which attacks the roots of the plant, downy mildew and powdery mildew, which attack the leaves and bunches. For these reasons, today still fight these parasites with copper-based products for the downy mildew and sulfur for powdery mildew. This type of treatment today are much less "poisonous" than in the past but effective and above all necessary. The interventions are performed at a distance of about 10-12 days of each other. The first is made to the appearance of the bunches so that they are immediately attacked by mildew the last at least 45 days before the harvest, this to avoid that traces of these products create problems to the alcoholic fermentation. For the phylloxera problem was solved with the American root system utilization that is immune. Today, European plants have all the basal supporting the American-style roots, fruitful part instead is European and is applied by means of a plug.


Every year the screw, when it is in vegetative rest, must be pruned to obtain a good production both qualitatively and quantitatively. From the type of pruning by the number of plants per hectare and the type of vineyard it depends largely on the quality and quantity of grapes. By pruning the branches are eliminated that have already given the fruit, (if they were not cut the plant would grow out of proportion and would be stripped of fruitful vegetation, the screw is a relative of the liana plant). The pruning systems are of different types depending on the climatic conditions and the type of vineyard. In climates and more suited to the cultivation environments is sought, after proper pruning, from the plant to have the maximum vegetative expansion. Do not forget that there is more vegetation is more pronounced photosynthesis and more sugar there will nell'acino (this is one of the reasons why you stà definitely returning to vineyard equipment to "spin", since they guarantee greater development and a leaf to greater sun exposure).

       
           Scorcio di vigna potata a San Cristoforo.

 

The branch is pruned more or less short depending on the grape to be produced; more gems will have the most branch grape will produce the screw and the lower the quality. The best exposure that the screw can have is southeast for an obvious reason of exposure to the sun, and in collina.Le seedlings (called cuttings when they are purchased in the nursery before being planted), they begin to produce around 3 ° or 4 years of age, reached the 6th year you get an excellent production already.
The vine cycle will last up to 30 years after should weed out the vineyard to rest the land a few years and replant. In spring, the screw starts to grow and as a result there will be flowering followed by the formation of small clusters (fruit). Before the summer will notice the clusters already formed and green, while in summer there is the stage of 'ripening where the grape by cell expansion softens and takes the color (yellow or red) from the peel. The time of harvest depends very much on the wine to be obtained. If you need to produce a sparkling collection will be slightly in advance to have a higher amount of acid in grapes (for reasons that I'm not to list), as they decrease the ripe grapes acids and grow sugars; to the considered optimal balancing the grapes are picked. Looking to spoil the grapes as little as possible, the grapes are taken to the cellar for vinification. The cycle then it will start again.

  Caratteristica vigna sulle colline di Parodi Ligure.


The wine is the product of the alcoholic fermentation, in the presence or in the absence of marc, which is operated by yeasts (present on the grape skin). The nell'acino juice content is transformed from a liquid alcohol sugary liquid through chemical reactions.
The wine contains about 600 substances (many of which are already present in the wort). The wine differently from the must, is constituted by a hydroalcoholic solution where the alcohol is present in the oscillating amount, in general, between 80 and 140 milliliters of ethyl alcohol per liter (8 ° and 14 ° alcohol) .The wort is made basically by water (70-80%), glucose, fructose and contains a large number of substances including the most important ones are tartaric acid, malic acid and citric acid. Such acids determine the total acidity of the wine is usually comprised between 4 and 8 grams per litro.Vi pectins and tannins are then required to obtain the full-bodied wines.

The vinification methods are basically two: with or without maceration. With maceration means that the skins in the early days when the must is not deleted begins to ferment (this technique is mainly used for red). No maceration, said blank, when the skins are removed before fermentation (technique used for white wines).
The fermentation and maceration gives the color to the wine as well as the tannins and aromas.
If this happens for white wines, initially it would be more aromatic but would pass in solution an excess of dye, an excess of tannins and especially of oxidizable substances. It follows an easier oxidation of the wine, the aromas would be lost in a short time and life organoleptic decrease.

For white wine
, the scope of grapes in the cellar are crushed and destemmed (separating the berries and stalks) are deleted; then it proceeds to the pressing of the skins to obtain still wine (the rest will go to the distillery).
With the addition of small amounts of sulfur dioxide (for disinfecting vessels and disinfect the mass which sometimes could be slightly damaged) the wort is fermented inside of vessels and at a controlled temperature of about 18 ° -20 ° by means chillers (if the temperature exceeds 37 degrees alcoholic fermentation cease). Immediately yeasts (single-celled organisms present in the skins, but which often are added) give way to the alcoholic fermentation takes place where the transformation of sugars into alcohol and carbon dioxide, with heat emission. After a few days of fermentation sugars are all transformed into alcohol and the process is completed (not having more "fuel"), then it results in an already dry wine. Besides alcohol you get a large number of substances.
After is racked into another vat, strictly impermeable to oxygen, they eliminate the lees deposited on the bottom, then we proceed to the wine filtration.


In red wine instead the skins remain for a few days to dissolve the substances including those coloranti.La temperature of the wort in the fermentation of red grapes should be around 26 ° .I gases that develop bring to the surface the skins that need to be pushed occasionally down to oxygenate the yeast and stir the masses for a perfect result. Some tanks are equipped with a barrier at a certain height to the skins so that they do not rise beyond a certain level and remain always immersed in the must.

Taking a hint to the other two methods of vinification we can say that there is the vinification in rosé where the skins remain in contact with the juice just to make rosé wine; then the carbonic maceration, where the grapes are placed in a container for approximately 15 days together with carbon dioxide, is subsequently fermented for 2 or 3 days to a few days after the wine is ready for commercialization, this technique is used to obtain the new wine.

The bottling of the wine is a practice that requires a lot of attention especially for white over the use of modern machinery and extremely expensive. The wine, needless to say, is bottled only after performing the necessary filtering that make "clean" and free of bacteria, which could alter the color and taste. This eliminates the risk of being in front of the stores inside the bottle, that the only "fault" of being unsightly, or an altered wine. The bottling, therefore, a seemingly simple practice is of great importance to preserve intact all wine fragrances.

The opening of the bottle, for white and sparkling wine must be made when the wine is consumed, while for the red, especially if aged, better if uncorked in advance. This operation was necessary to remove the musty smell from wine, bottled by time and to improve its organoleptic characteristics. How early depends on the wine and its "old age", in general it must be said that the more the wine is old needs more time, but if we want to accelerate the oxygenation effect we put the wine in a carafe a few minutes before serving.
Never put in a carafe white wine.

To enjoy the most of the quality of a wine, we must be attentive to serving temperature. Serving whites at a low temperature while the red to a higher, this is because at low temperatures enhances the astringent taste of tannins, the wine then there would be "bitter").
More precisely, we can summarize:
The sparkling wine should be drunk at 8 ° degrees (approximately);
a young white wine 10th,
a sweet white 12th,
from barrique 14 °;
a rosé wine 11 °;
a young red wine to 16 °,
a robust red and body 18 °,
Long also aged 20 °.
Of course at the table we will use white wine for light courses and fish, red wine for red meat, aged red wine for elabotate dishes and game.

   


Uva e Vitigno






Viti e uva Cortese





Vigne di Cortese





Germoglio





Germoglio alla fioritura





Grappolo in fioritura





Grappolo ancora acerbo in maturazione.





Tralci e grappoli maturi per la vendemmia


Chiunque volesse partecipare a rendere più esauriente questa pagina può contattare o inviare direttamente il materiale a:  elidio@aruba.it

          The Cortese grape variety



        The first complete example of this variety is to Demaria and Leardi; is historic duty to report fully the part about the Cortese grape, together with the current text, which was drafted in 1960 by professors Dalmasso, Ricci and Dell'Olio.
Since then, little has changed from the standpoint ampelographic while numerous and extensive studies by the specialized sections of the University of Turin and Piacenza have contributed to the genetic improvement, the selection of planting material and the identification of specific nutritional needs, so also have the optimal fertilization.
So in 1870, Demaria and Leardi describe the Cortese: "And the vine to the most widely grown white grape in the province of Alessandria; there is indigenous, long known time and grown in bulk and mixed with other varieties. In addition to the strength and fecundity his, it makes fine the goodness and the delicacy of its product, which certainly is such as to recommend to the diligence and attention of winemakers.
It has a rustic and vigorous nature, very, hunting bears fruit in the fourth year and the fifth, is very fertile and retains its fertility because of other ordinary varieties. She loves sunny aspects and noon, it is cultivated and thrives both in calcareous soils, both in clay and mixed, as in tuffaceous soils, good resistance to winter frosts and generally is little damaged by cryptogam.

Shoots: cinnamon reddish color, streaked darker to robust nodes and lush, with median internodes, prominent and large knots; Average marrow, woody tendrils. They adhere firmly to the old man and stand up very well to winter frosts.

Gemma: large, swollen, conical, lanugginosa to the top of scale and at the base of dark brown color. It opens in mid season and the flower very resistant to rain and mist and the spring winds and is not damaged by melume.

Leaf: large, elongated, with five lobes of distinct ordinary, the deep breasts upper and lower lobes that accavalcano to petiole .. E 'thick, smooth to the upper page, glabra, but with the hairs on the underside. It has bright green color which then also covers the yellowish ferruginous spots, little know-lens ribbing, well below shows the rib, the whitish underside, the median pezziolo, green with reddish tint.


Fruit: ripe on the commencement of the media. The ordinary bunch is voluminous, conical in shape or that it approaches, very long, with distinct racemoli and large, with the racemate herbaceous, pale green, somewhat long, and sometimes with tendril protruding from the node. The berries are sparse, but agglomerates and dense, round, with 16 mm. a diameter of about, but somewhat unequal; They adhere little to the racemate and have golden color with light green bottom and tawny hue on the part exposed to sunlight. The harpoons is thin, transparent, very little pruinose; The juicy flesh, slightly crunchy, with two or three seeds. The grape has a simple, delicate, not until salt is healthier as edible. It resists little to rain and moisture autumn, and is preserved even after little detached from the plant. And full of wine, and it gets a fruity wine, thin and dry, medium alcohol, storable. They can also make fine sparkling wines. Sometimes, certain mix it with other grapes, particularly with Malvasia and with Moscow-to. "Let us now ampelography according Dalmasso, Ricci, Dell'Olio. The description has been made on a clone Cortese located in the municipality of Gavi and the data were controlled-ti with another clone cultivated in the municipality of Melazzo (AL) and others of the province of Alessandra and Asti.


Bud: 10-20 cm . Apex: medium, lanugginoso, whitish green with bronze hues and shades at the edges. Apex leaves: light arachnoid pubescence, light yellowish green color with reddish hues, with the apex of the teeth yellow / golden color. bud axis: curved. Overall, the bud is light green color with bronzed reflections more accentuated towards the tip ..
Bud flowering. Apex: foam, fluffy, green-white.

 Apex leaves: explained, cottony, with pubescence denser on the lower, green / light whitish color. basal leaves: explained with tomento arachnoid thickest at the bottom of page green color with yellow highlights / golden superiorly, inferiorly clearer. Axis bud: a Pastoral.
Herbaceous branch: elliptical cross-section, with a side a bit 'with angular spread tomento arachnoid, green in color with streaks vinous on the side of the sun.


Tendrils: bifid or the Triffids, formula: 0/1/2/0/1/2/0
Inflorescence: length from 18 to 24 centimeters.
Flower: light green corolla, yellowish towards the apex, the normal opening hood, stamens 5 to 8, rarely 4, morphological-mind normal flowers, uniform, self-fertile.


Leaf: more than average size, pentagonal, five-lobed, closed petiole sinus, with overlapped edges, upper lateral sinuses closed with overlapping edges; breasts lower lyre-shaped, closed; glabra upper page dark green, with pale green ribs (sometimes with some nuance to rosea petiole point) lower page with tomento arachnoid very infrequently, light green in color with the same color ribs; medium thickness flap, a bit 'wavy; irregular teeth, convex on one side and concave on the other hand, a broad-based, well pronounced.

 Leafstalk: Medium length and thickness than average with arachnoid tomentum very rarely, light green in color with light winy shades.
autumn coloring of the leaves: green / yellow / gold.
Bunch to industrial maturity: more than average size, rather sparse, conical / pyramidal, with one or two wings, length of about 20-25 cm .; clearly visible peduncle, semi-woody (up to the first branching), subscript The average length li, light green in color; labrum evident, green; medium brush of light yellow / gold color.

Berry: medium or slightly more than the mean ellipsoid, with circular cross-section; peel of medium thickness, not very waxy, yellow / golden color from the sun, green / yellowish in the shade; persistent and prominent navel; juicy flesh of simple taste, characteristic, pleasant; separation from dell'acino] ped
                                                                                                                                                  Woody shoot: sturdy but a little fragile, with elliptical cross-section a little 'flattened; smooth non-waxy; bark well adherent, of ashen gray dotted, internodes of medium length (10-12 cm.), globose nodes; enough protruding conical gems; labrum petiole off; marrow quite filling.

Location: Longitude: 3 ° 39 '- Latitude; 44 ° 41 - Altitude: 180/200 m. s.l.m .. - Orientation: West - Plot: hilly, with twenty / 5% pendenza-
Soil: medium mixture mainly clayey - Rootstock: Berlandieri X Riparia Teleki 5 BB -Age: 6 years - Training system; beacon of expansion in rows - pruning Form; Guyot.

Vegetative phenomena:
Germination: medium (second half of April). Flowering: medium (mid-June). Veraison: media (mid-August).
Aging: 2nd era (mid-September).
Fall leaf: normal (the fortnight of November).

Characteristics and cultural attitudes.
Vigor: remarkable.

Production: normally abundant and constant.
Position of the 1st bud-bearing: 1ma gem. Average number of inflorescences per shoot: 2. femminelle of Fertility: occasional negligible.
Resistance to diseases and other hardships: normal for the parasite suffer relatively less than other varieties frosts but loves sunny aspects: The grape does not stand much to the autumn rains. Behavior with respect to multiplication by grafting: Particularly preferred good "Berlandien Riparia X 420 A", "Kober 5 BB" and "Rupestri du Lot".

                                                                                                                                                                                 

          
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